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考古材料分析实验

时间:2012-09-22 14:39:12  来源:实验教学中心  作者:罗雁冰 点击:  

 第一讲 考古材料分析前应该考虑到的13个方面 

1.Does the method provide information on the surface of the sample or on the bulk composition? Is it a  point analysis or of a small area?

(要选择的)方法提供的是样品表面的信息还是整体的信息?是分析一小块区域上的一个点吗?

2.Is the technique destructive or damaging, and to what degree?

这种方法是破坏性的或者说是损害性的吗?到什么程度?

3. How much sample material is required? Can it be reused?

需要多少样品量?样品用完之后能再用吗?

4.What kind of sample preparation is required? Are special techniques or  equipment mecessary? Who will prepare the samples?

如何制备样品?需要特殊的技术和设备吗?由谁来制备样品?

5.Are the instruments available to perform the analyses?  Are there experienced  operators? What sort of backlog or priority system controls access to the  equipment? 进行分析的仪器能找到吗?有熟练的操作人员吗?

6.What is the cost of the analysis? What is the cost per sample? Do charges include the use of the instrument, the operator"s time, sample preparation,data reduction, and extra analyses for clarification should they be necessary? 分析的费用是多少?每个样品的费用是多少?如果仪器的使用、操作人员的工作时间、数据的约简,进一步的其他分析,这些都是必要的,那也要算入到费用中吗?

7. How much time is involed? How long does it take to analyze one sample? The entire data set? How long until final results will be available?  Should delays be anticipated?  要多长时间?分析一个样品要用多长时间?获得到完整的数据要多久?  拿到最后的结果,需要多久?会发生延误吗?

8. What is the sensitivity of the equipment? What elements can be reliably detected and at what level?  仪器的灵敏程度怎样?分析哪些元素是可靠的,达到什么程度?

9. What is the accuracy of the equipment (in quantitative analyses)? How are ambiquities resolved? What kinds of standards and calibrations are used?   对于定量分析来说,仪器的准度怎样?不确定性怎样处理?用哪种标准化方法和校正方法?

10. What are the limitations of the technique (in sample size, elements  analyzable, accuracy,etc.)?    这种技术有什么限制(比如,样品尺寸,可分析的元素,准度等等)?

11. What kind of data transformations are necessary? Are the raw data provided, or are they given multivariate statistical reductions (if necessary) for conversion to quantitative form? Who perform these? Is this charged separately?

   需要进行哪种数据转换?是提供原始数据呢,还是进行多元统计约简为定量形式?谁来进行这个工作?要单独收费吗?

12. What precautions should the archaeologist take in excavating,handling, or transporting the artifact? www.mgm66948.com家在发掘,处理和运输文物的过程中应该注意哪些问题?

13. Is accuracy required, or is precision sufficient? (Because many problems involve only comparison among sets of specimens,relative,not absolute, quantities may be all that are needed. The extra expense in absolute calibrations and standards(for accuracy)may not be necessary.)

   需要准度吗,或者是精度够吗?(因为许多问题只是在样品之间做个比较,相对的,半定量就够了;完全的校正以及标准化(对于准度而言)并不需要。

考古材料分析实验(罗雁冰).doc
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